Title: Volume 50 Masthead
File: Masthead_V50
Title: Same Journal New Platform
Authors: Nigel Turner
Pages: 1-2
File: Editorial_V50
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/SQQP1965
Title: Obituary: Robert Ernest Mann (1952-2022)
Authors: Nigel E. Turner, Flora Matheson, John McCready, Tara Marie Watson, Gina Stoduto, & Mark van der Maas
Pages: 3-5
Keywords: Obituary, Robert Ernest Mann.
File: JGI-obiturary
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/OLWD1983
Title: Cognitive Distortions and Problem Gambling in Sports Betting
Authors: Yi Xian Philip Phua, Do Young Pyun, & Ho Keat Leng
Abstract: Sports betting is an activity that has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. The integrative nature of sports betting in marketing mediums and the advent of modern technology makes it a particularly dangerous form of gambling. This study aimed to compare the cognitions of sports bettors and non-sports gamblers. A total of 713 participants were recruited, of which 80 were sports bettors, 270 were non-sports gamblers, and 363 were non-gamblers. Cognitive distortions were measured using the Gamblers Belief’s Questionnaire, which comprises two factors: Luck/Perseverance, and Illusion of Control. The results of a between-groups MANOVA showed that sports bettors recorded higher scores for Luck/Perseverance (M = 35.27, SD = 13.63) than non-gamblers (M = 17.60, SD = 8.20, p < .001) and non-sports gamblers (M = 27.19, SD = 11.81, p < .001). Sports gamblers also recorded higher Illusion of Control scores (M = 25.48, SD = 8.81) than both non-gamblers (M = 13.46, SD = 6.50, p < .001) and non-sports gamblers (M = 19.76, SD = 7.91, p < .001). Problem gambling was measured using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. One-way analysis of variance between the three groups showed sports bettors scores (M = 3.45, SD = 3.29) were higher than those of non- sports gamblers (M = 1.62, SD = 2.30), and non-gamblers (M = 0.29, SD = 0.96, p < .001). These findings suggest that gamblers should not be treated as a homogenous group, and that greater attention should be placed on sports bettors in prevention and treatment efforts.
Pages: 6-20
Keywords: Pathological Gambling, Sports Betting, Cognitive Distortions.
File: Phua et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/MXDF4708
Title: Contextual, behavioural and individual factors associated with problem gambling among Italian
Authors: Daniela Capitanucci & Alexander Tomei
Abstract: Gambling is a very widespread activity in Italy. As terrestrial and online gambling opportunities expand rapidly, there are rising concerns over the growing accessibility to gambling in vulnerable populations. The present study examined gambling behaviours and the factors associated with problem gambling in a sample of 1,399 Italian adolescents (aged 14 to 20; 68.5% male) from the province of Varese. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed environmental variables related to gambling, individual dimensions, gambling behaviour, and problem gambling. Statistical analyses included principal component factor analyses and sequential binary logistic regressions. The findings show that approximatively 25% of the participants had gambled in the past year, of which
66.4% were offline gamblers only, 1.4% were online gamblers only, and 32.2% engaged in a mix of both. According to the SOGS-RA, 12% of the past-year gamblers were problem gamblers (3% of the sample). Logistic regression analyses indicated the odds of being at-risk of problem gambling were significantly related to age, perceived access to offline gambling, using gambling as a way of feeling
good, and offline gambling frequency. These findings suggest that gambling prevention programs combining structural, environmental and educational interventions should be implemented to target this population.
Pages: 21-47
Keywords: Adolescence, Gambling, Problem Gambling, Italy.
File: Capitannuci & Tomei
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/HRKB1237
Title: Development and Evaluation of a Modified Gambling Motivation Scale (Japanese Version).
Authors: Yasunobu Komoto, Makoto Kaneko, & Koji Nobayashi
Abstract: The Modified Gambling Motivation Scale (MGMS) is based on SelfDetermination Theory, comprises six factors: Intellectual Challenge, Social Recognition, Excitement, Socialization, Monetary Gain, and Amotivation. As currently configured, the MGMS does not directly translate into a clinical intervention strategy. To increase the value of this scale, we propose restructuring it into a new scale based on identity development theory, with four factors that each correspond to a clinical grouping according to type of gambler: Identity for Achievement (recreational gamblers), Identity for Diffusion (problem gamblers), Moratorium (pathological gamblers), and Occupational Identity (professional gamblers). We also investigated the reliability and validity of both the four- and six-factor structures of its Japanese version (J-MGMS) in the seven-point Likert format and the dichotomous (yes/no) format. Study 1 validated J-MGMS by comparing it to MGMS with 26 participants. Study 2 evaluated the score structure of the J-MGMS with 160 participants. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test found no significant difference between the MGMS and J-MGMS, while confirmatory factor analysis indicated a better fit for the four-factor dichotomous format of the J-MGMS than for others. We also identified associations between amotivation and gambling problem scores with a linear regression model. Our findings indicate that the four-factor dichotomous format can be more convenient than the current sixfactor structure for assessing gamblers’ identity and clinical grouping.
Pages: 48-72
Keywords: Gambling Motivation, Japanese Modified Gambling Motivation Scale, Identity Development Theory, Pachinko, Pachi-slot gambling, The South Oaks Gambling Screening Japanese version (J-SOGS).
File: Komoto et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/RVNK4027
Title: Effects of a workplace prevention program for problem gambling: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.
Authors: Jonas Rafi, Ekaterina Ivanova, Alexander Rozental, Petra Lindfors, Gerhard Andersson, & Per Carlbring
Abstract: Background and Aims: This study evaluated whether a preventive intervention program for problem gambling would increase managers’ inclination to act when concerned about gambling in the workplace. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Ten workplaces were randomized to either
intervention or control condition. Participants: At the 12-month endpoint, there were n = 136 managers and n = 1594 subordinates in the intervention group, and n = 137 managers and n = 1150 subordinates in the waitlist group. Intervention: The intervention consisted of (1) six hours of skill-development training for managers regarding gambling, problem gambling, gaming, and harmful use of
psychoactive drugs, and (2) six to eight hours of assistance in developing or improving workplace gambling policy. Measurements: The primary outcome was the managers’ self-rated (on a 1 to 10 scale) inclination to act when concerned about an employee’s problem gambling 12 months after baseline. Findings: The between-group difference in the managers’ inclination for the full intervention
group (M = 8) and the control group (M = 7.4) was not significant at the 12-month
follow-up, but it was when only including managers who attended the skills development training (M = 8.2), d = 0.31, p = .04. Conclusion: A workplace prevention program aimed to increase managers’ inclination to act when they are concerned regarding an employee’s gambling resulted in statistically significant changes for those who attended training, but not for the whole intervention group
when non-attendees were included.
Pages: 73-97
Keywords: Gambling, Problem Gambling, Prevention, Workplace, Cluster-Randomized Trial.
File: Rafi et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/VUTO9123
Title: Intrapersonal and Family Predictors of Internet Addiction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Authors: Armagan Aral & Mirac Baris Usta
Abstract: This research examined the influence of intrapersonal and family factors on Internet Addiction (IA) among adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A prospective evaluation was performed in two waves on a total of 250 adolescents in this longitudinal study, with a four month interval. Demographic data, intrapersonal factors (self-esteem, autistic traits and inattention symptoms), and family factors (socioeconomic status, family functioning, and parenting style) were examined as predictors in a multiple regression analysis. The results of Wave 1 indicated that the family factors (neglectful parenting style and family dysfunction, respectively) were stronger predictors than other variables. In Wave 2, lower self-esteem was found to be an independent predictor of IA symptoms after controlling for depression and anxiety in the mediation analysis, while neglectful parenting style and autistic traits remained significant predictors. These findings identified the importance of family risk factors for IA in adolescents with ADHD.
Pages: 98-131
Keywords: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Traits, Family Factors, Internet Addiction, Self-esteem.
File: Aral & Usta
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/XHMA4001
Title: Mindfulness and Impulsive Urgency are Related but Not Interacting Predictors of Disordered
Authors: Camilla Potoczny, Peter Richard Gill, Keis Ohtsuka, & Jessica Scarfo
Abstract: Research suggests that emotion regulation problems are involved in disordered gambling. A cross-sectional correlational study of 296 Australian community gamblers investigated trait mindfulness as a protective factor for emotionally impulsive gamblers. Moderated regression revealed that gender, and positive and negative urgency predicted problem gambling and gambling frequency. Mindfulness did not moderate the urgency/problem gambling or urgency/gambling frequency pathways. While causal inferences cannot be inferred, we suggest that the inability to regulate extreme positive mood states is significantly involved in disordered gambling. The role of mindfulness in these processes remains unclear and requires further research using multidimensional measures of mindfulness.
Pages: 132-144
Keywords: Mindfulness, Impulsivity, Negative Urgency, Positive Urgency, Disordered Gambling, Moderation.
File: Potoczny et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/PYDQ5415
Title: Probability disclosures are not enough: Reducing loot box reward complexity as a part of ethical
video game design.
Authors: Leon Y. Xiao & Philip Newall
Abstract: Loot boxes are virtual products in video games that provide randomized rewards, and accordingly share structural similarities with gambling. Policymakers around the world are presently considering how best to regulate loot boxes. Current loot box consumer protection measures, such as requiring probability disclosures, have been inspired by similar harm reduction approaches in gambling. However, unlike in many gambling games, most loot boxes’ reward structures are arguably too complex for consumers to be meaningfully protected by probability disclosures alone. But promisingly, loot boxes can readily be redesigned to be more ethical because they are digital products. Based on behavioural science principles, this article proposes four reductions to loot box reward complexity. The decisionmaking environment can be simplified by capping (i) the maximum number of loot boxes per game and (ii) the maximum number of potential rewards per loot box, and by (iii) equalizing winning probabilities across rewards. Additionally, (iv) companies can implement “exhaustible” loot boxes that provide the player with every potential reward after a predetermined amount of money has been spent, thereby effectively instituting a maximum spending limit. These ethical game design proposals can credibly reduce financial harms from loot boxes while both maintaining consumer freedom and preserving companies’ commercial interests.
Pages: 145-162
Keywords: Loot Boxes; Gambling; Video Gaming Regulations; Consumer Protection Law; Ethical Game Design; Video Games; Gaming Law; Microtransactions.
File: Xiao & Newall
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/LDOM8890
Title: School Factors Associated with Past-Month Gambling Among A Large Sample of Adolescents.
Authors: Robert Yockey, Keith King, Rebecca Vidourek, & Ashley Merianos
Abstract: The present study sought to identify school factors associated with recent gambling (gambling within the past 30 days). We used pooled data from the 2016, 2018, and 2020 PRIDE data set among 108,690 adolescents among 13 local public schools. A sizeable percentage (13.1%) of adolescents reported gambling in the past 30 days. Results from multiple logistic regression analyses found differences based on demographic factors, previous substance use, and school factors. Adolescents at highest risk were those who were male, non-white, in high school, sold drugs, used their technological devices other than for school purposes, and participated in violent activities in the past 30 days. Worrying rates of substance use were also found. Findings from the present study can inform harm reduction efforts, prevention messaging, and clinical interventions related to adolescent gambling.
Pages: 163-176
Keywords: Adolescent, School Factor, PRIDE, Gambling.
File: Yockey et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/XFTD6148
Title: Testing the Bifactor Model of the Financially Focused Self-Concept Scale.
Authors: Nassim Tabri, Tiffany Cheng, Lucas Palmer, Hyoun S. Kim, Luke Clark, & Michael Wohl
Abstract: Financially focused self-concept has been linked to gambling problems among people who gamble. Herein, we examined the bifactor structure of the 20- item financially focused self-concept scale (FFS), which includes one global factor and four grouping factors (self-views, feelings, interpersonal relationships, achievement). We examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the 20- item and 4-item FFS. Participants were community members who gamble (N = 393). They completed the 20-item FFS, Perceived Relative Deprivation Scale (PRDS), Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and reported personal income. The bifactor model provided a good fit to the data, and a better fit relative to a single-factor model. All FFS items loaded strongly on a global factor. The 20-item and 4-item FFS had similar positively moderate correlations with PRDS and PGSI, and no association with personal income. These findings support the robust psychometric properties of the FFS and are the first to support a bifactor model of financially focused self-concept.
Pages: 177-184
Keywords:  Self-concept, Disordered Gambling, Financial Success, Measurement, Psychometrics.
File: Tabri et al.
DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4309/LZCW4190
Title: The impact of COVID-19 on gambling-related crisis calls in Ontario, Canada: an interrupted time
series analysis.
Authors: Nigel E. Turner, Steven Cook & Mark van der Maas
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed major strains on programs and organizations designed to help those in crisis. It has also significantly impacted the gambling industry, with incredible shortfalls for traditional land-based gambling, and concurrent record profits in online gambling platforms. The current study explores trends in the calls to gambling crisis helplines in Ontario using interrupted time-series analyses to examine the impact of the pandemic on problem gambling. We found that gambling helpline calls decreased dramatically with the onset of the pandemic. There was also a shift in the types of games people reported playing; the decrease in calls were more pronounced for electronic gambling machines than for gambling related to sports and card games. We also found that the proportion of younger adult callers increased during this time. Taken together, the results from this study indicate a reduction in calls to the Ontario gambling helpline, as well as a shift in the types of gambling people engaged in. The effects of the pandemic on gambling behaviours should continue to be monitored to better understand how it has translated into gambling and non-gambling-related harms.
Pages: 185-202
Keywords: Gambling, Ontario, Covid-19, Electronic, Time Series Analysis.
File: Turner et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4309/SXJY8166