Brief Report

Title: From the Editor
Issue: 9
Author: From the Editor
File: From-the-editor
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.3


Title: Oregon’s Problem Gambling Services: Public health orientation in a stepped-care approach
Issue: 9
Author: Jeffrey J. Marotta
File: Oregon’s Problem Gambling Services
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.8


Title: When the Chips Are Down: Problem Gambling in America
Issue: 9
Author: Rachel A. Volberg
File: Literature-Review
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.12
Title: How to gamble: Information and misinformation in books and other media on gambling
Issue: 9
Authors: Nigel Turner, Barry Fritz, & Brownyn Mackenzie
Abstract: Currently a large number of books, videocassettes and computer programs are available to teach people how to gamble. This article is an examination of this wealth of information. The paper begins by describing the number and types of materials on how to gamble available in an online catalogue and in libraries and bookstores (Study One). The paper then turns the discussion to an examination of the accurate and inaccurate information found in a sample of these materials (Study Two). The studies found that the majority of the material available was on skilled games, but a sizeable number of materials on non-skilled games were also found. The quality of these materials ranged from pure nonsense to accurate. The best materials found were in books on gambling in general and in materials on how to play poker. This paper includes a catalogue of the accurate and inaccurate information found in the books as well as a series of reviews on a number of books, Web sites and other gambling-related material.
File: Turner et al.
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.13


Title: Why do gamblers over-report wins? An examination of social factors
Issue: 9
Authors: John Jamieson, Chris Mushquash, & Dwight Mazmanian
Abstract: The role of social factors in gamblers’ over-reporting of wins was explored using a survey administered via the Internet. One hundred and fifteen gamblers (average age 36.9) completed the survey. The majority of gamblers reported that they do not over-report wins, and would not do so for social reasons. However, they believe that other gamblers do mislead people about their losses for a variety of social reasons, such as a desire to appear skilled or to be popular. As well, the majority of gamblers report not feeling urges to gamble when hearing about wins, although younger people, males, and those with gambling problems were significantly more likely to report feeling and/or acting on urges to gamble when hearing about others’ wins. The discrepancy between their views of themselves and of other gamblers may be due to cognitive distortions specific to gamblers, or may reflect a general self-presentation bias.
File: Jamieson et al.
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.10
Title: Quitting again: Motivations and strategies for terminating gambling relapses
Issue: 9
Authors: Kylie L. Thygesen & David C. Hodgins
Abstract: This study provides a descriptive exploration of the reason(s) why individuals who experienced a gambling relapse terminated the relapse episode and how they did so. Thirty-eight males and 22 females were administered the Relapse Experience Interview (Marlatt & Gordon, 1989). Participants (N = 60) cited a mean of 1.5 reasons for terminating relapse, with monetary factors, affective factors, reappraisal and external constraints emerging as central factors in relapse termination. Participants reported using a mean of 1.7 strategies for stopping a gambling episode. The strategies used were identified as either cognitive or behavioural and were classified according to the processes of change model (Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, 1992). Stimulus control, self-liberation, counterconditioning and helping relationships were the main strategies used to terminate gambling relapse. Participants showed a preference for using either cognitive or behavioural strategies rather than both.
File: Kylie-L.-Thygesen-David-C.-Hodgins
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.11
Title: Gamblers Anonymous: A critical review of the literature
Issue: 9
Authors: Peter Ferentzy & Wayne Skinner
This study surveys existing literature on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and issues that help to contextualise our understanding of this mutual aid association. While GA has been the subject of investigation by social scientists, it is still understudied, with a notable shortage of research on issues facing women and ethnic minorities. A need exists for large-scale assessments of GA’s effectiveness, more detailed accounts of GA beliefs and practices, increased knowledge of the ways in which GA attendance interacts with both formal treatment and attendance at other mutual aid organisations, and a better understanding of the profiles of gamblers best (and least) suited to GA, along with a clearer grasp of what GA was able to offer those
gamblers that it seems to have helped. This assessment of the current state of knowledge underscores the embryonic state of our collective inquiry into the nature of GA, and the authors emphasise that significant advances have been made. Notably, important targets for study are being identified.
File: Peter-Ferentzy-Wayne-Skinner
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.9


Title: Lottery fraud: Nothing new under the sun
Issue: 9
Author: Peter Shears
File: Peter-Shears
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.6
Title: The face of Chinese migrants’ gambling: A perspective from New Zealand
Issue: 9
Authors: John Wong & Samson Tse
Abstract: This article is written from the viewpoint and experiences of two counselors who are community development workers and researchers working in the field of Asian social services for people with gambling problems. It discusses the factors that shape Chinese migrants’ gambling behaviors in New Zealand in relation to the difficulties that they may encounter during their migration process, such as insecurity in the new country and disconnection from their family and friends. Also, some individuals have little experience of legalized casino gambling prior to coming to New Zealand and they tend to use gambling as a form of escape from their problems. The article concludes by proposing directions for future research and development of services to help Chinese people affected by gambling problems.
File: John-Wong-Samson-Tse
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.7
Title: Instant-win products and prize draws: Are these forms of gambling?
Issue: 9
Author: Mark Griffiths
Abstract: Instant-win marketing and prize draws are not particularly new but many companies (particularly in the U.K.) appear to be aiming them at younger age groups. This brief paper argues that some children appear to “chase” their losses on instant-win products in the same way a gambler chases losses, and that they are a form of adolescent gambling or, at the least, a gambling precursor. This paper also briefly overviews the prize draw culture in the U.K. Policy recommendations for both instant-win and prize draw products are outlined.
File: Mark-Griffiths
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.5


Title: Meta-analysis: A 12-step program
Issue: 9
Author: L. Streiner David
Abstract: Meta-analysis is a technique for combining the results of many studies in a rigorous and systematic manner, to allow us to better assess prevalence rates for different types of gambling and determine which interventions have the best evidence regarding their effectiveness and efficacy. Meta-analysis consists of (a) a comprehensive search for all available evidence; (b) the use of applying explicit criteria for determining which articles to include; (c) determination of an effect size
for each study; and (d) the pooling of effect sizes across studies to end up with a global estimate of the prevalence or the effectiveness of a treatment. This paper begins with a discussion of why meta-analyses are useful, followed by a 12-step program for conducting a meta-analysis. This program can be used both by people planning to do such an analysis, as well as by readers of a meta-analysis, to evaluate how well it was carried out.
File: L.-Streiner-David
DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2003.9.1