|Title: Completing The Circle: The Convergence of Gambling and Gaming
|Authors: Nigel E. Turner & Jing Shi
|Abstract: This paper examines an innovation by the game industry that makes it possible to earn credits for gift cards while playing video games. This turns video gaming into something like an indirect form of gambling. One spends money to win awards through gift cards. It is indirect because the player spends money on one or more game software applications, and then uses a different software application to collect the rewards. For this paper we downloaded one of these payment application and several games to examine how much money one can earn, incentives to spend money, and the potential risk of these applications. Additional issues related to gambling content and advertising in these software applications are also discussed. It is argued that governments regulators need to examine this type of scheme to determine if it is gambling and if regulations are needed to
protect consumers, especially youth, and to monitor the integrity of the game.
|Keywords: Game Industry, Video Games, Win, Award.
|File: Nigel & Turner
|Title: Personality Pathways to Gaming Problems Early on in the COVID-19 Pandemic
|Authors: Naama Kronstein, Karli Rapinda, Emma Ritchie, Jeffrey Wardell, Hyoun S. Kim, Matthew T. Keough
|Abstract: Media reports noted that video gaming behaviours increased during the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some people may have had predisposing risk factors for excessive gaming and related problems during the onset of the pandemic. We examined pathways from four personality risk traits (i.e., hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) to excessive gaming and related problems during the first month of the pandemic. We predicted that people high in anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness would engage in excessive gaming to cope with increased distress. We also predicted that the isolation and boredom resulting from the COVID-19 lockdown would lead those
high in impulsivity and sensation seeking to game excessively to enhance their mood. Participants (N=332), recruited via Prolific, completed a single survey of their retrospective gaming behaviours for 30 days prior to, and 30 days following the initiation of the COVID-19 state of emergency (March 2020). People high in anxiety sensitivity were initially at risk for excessive gaming and related problems due to elevated coping and self-gratification motives. People high in hopelessness
were at risk for increased gaming-related problems through coping and self gratification motives. Contrary to hypotheses, participants high in sensation seeking had more excessive gaming and related problems due to elevated coping (but not enhancement) motives. Those high in impulsivity were at risk of gaming related problems due to self-gratification (but not enhancement) motives.
Addressing the motivation to game can assist in tailoring treatment plans to individual needs, especially as we continue to navigate the longer-term impacts of the pandemic.
|Keywords: COVID-19, Videogaming, Gaming Disorder, Personality.
|File: Kronstein et al.
|Title: Characteristics That Differentiate Online From Land-based Gamblers: Results From A National Longitudinal Study of Gambling
|Authors: Carrie A. Shaw & Robert Williams
|Abstract: Objective: The current research aimed to examine the biopsychosocial characteristic profile of online gamblers, relative to land-based exclusive gamblers, both concurrently and prospectively in a large national cohort of Canadian adults. Method: This cohort was recruited from Leger Opinion’s registered panel of online participants. In addition to demographic information, the survey battery included assessment of comorbidities of disordered gambling (substance use disorder and other behavioral addictions), level of stress, past year life events, presence of mental health disorders, impulsivity, gambling engagement, gambling fallacies, family history of problem gambling, past year problem gambling and gambling-related harm. The 1-year follow-up survey was completed by 55.9% of this cohort. Results: Significant differences between online and land-based exclusive gamblers were detected on all gambling engagement measures at baseline. For example, those who gamble via online platforms spend more time gambling than land-based exclusive gamblers (M = 58.86 versus M = 20.13 hours respectively), engage in more types of gambling (M = 4.10 versus M = 2.46) and incur greater gambling losses (M = $-960.56 versus M = $-382.84). Both the concurrent and prospective predictive analyses indicate that access to legal online gambling, increased frequency of engagement, higher impulsivity, younger age, and being male are variables that robustly and significantly predict gambling engagement via an online platform. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate while there are some robust factors that distinguish online from land-based exclusive gamblers, online gamblers are psychosocially a heterogenous group that does tend to engage in gambling to a greater extent than land-based exclusive gamblers. Additional longitudinal research is required examining the individual characteristics of online gamblers as this sub-population does appear to differ from that of land-based exclusive gamblers.
|Keywords: online gambling, internet gambling, problem gambling, longitudinal.
|File: Shaw & Williams
|Title: Googling the health aspects of Gambling: An infodemiological study of worldwide Google search volumes from 2004 to 2021
|Author: Rowalt Alibudbud
|Abstract: Despite predictions that gambling prevalence would decrease over time, recent reports suggest an increasing trend that is an emerging but neglected public health problem. This study analyzed public concern regarding gambling as a health topic using aggregated Google searches. Using an infodemiological design, a search query using the keyword “Gambling (Topic)” was done in Google Trends. The region, category filters were set to “Worldwide” and “Health,” with the timeframe as January 2004 to December 2021. The relative search volumes (RSV), monthly growth rate, related queries, and topics were compared and analyzed. Autoregressive integrated mean averaging (ARIMA) was also used to address seasonality, autocorrelations, and predict the RSVs in the following years, and correlation analyses determined relationships between RSVs for gambling in health and leisure categories. Results showed that after an initial decrease, there was a generally increasing trend in searches of gambling as a health topic, with a monthly growth rate of 1.36%. The RSVs for both categories are predicted to increase, with positive correlations that may be stronger in the future. Top and rising queries and topics revolved around gambling disorder-related concepts, treatment, venues, diagnosis, and online gambling, indicating an emerging public concern for the health consequences of gambling. Gambling-related online health information should therefore be updated and accurate, particularly with regard to treatment, diagnosis, and consequences.
|Keywords: Gambling, Google Trends, Global, Behavioral Addictions, Problem Gambling, Mental Health, Gambling Disorder
|Title: Fear of missing out mediated the relationship between social appearance anxiety and phubbing in Turkish adults
|Author: Hasan Batmaz, Eyüp Çelik, Lokman Koçak, Beyza Nur Tufan, Samet Makas, & Murat Yıldırım
|Abstract: The existing body of research lacks investigations into the potential links between fear of missing out (FOMO), social appearance anxiety, and phubbing. For the first time, this study examined the mediating role of FOMO in the relationship between phubbing and social appearance anxiety. Participants included 341 Turkish adults (M age = 28.25, SD = 8.02) and completed the measures of FOMO, social appearance anxiety, and phubbing. Results showed that social appearance anxiety was positively related to FOMO and phubbing. Also, FOMO was positively associated with phubbing. The results of the mediation analysis indicated that FOMO partially mediated the association of social appearance anxiety with phubbing. These results suggest that social appearance anxiety exacerbates the FOMO, which in turn leads to an increased level of phubbing. These findings have significant implications for both research and practice.
|Keywords: Fear of missing out; social appearance anxiety; phubbing; Turkish adults
|File: Yildirim et al.
|Title: Sports News And Stories In The Service Of Gamblification: The Finnish State-Owned Gambling Monopoly’s Sports-Related Social Media Posts
|Authors: Paula Jääskeläinen, Matilda Hellman, & Mikaela Lindeman
|Abstract: Gamblification refers to the gambling industry’s aspirations to normalize gambling through hybrids of gambling and non-gambling contexts, most commonly sports. While research has widely shown that betting, sponsorships, and marketing gimmicks contribute to the normalization of gambling, we lack knowledge on how sports news production and journalistic storytelling pursue the same objective. This study provides insight into the ways in which Veikkaus, the Finnish state-owned gambling monopoly, utilizes sports news and stories in its social media communication. We sampled Veikkaus’s sports-related social media posts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube in 2018–2020 and analysed the ways in which the content is framed to serve the Finnish public through an alignment between Veikkaus and the world of sports. Our study shows that the company takes on three communicative roles in order to claim, acquire, and justify its relevance: a news agency, a producer of high-quality journalistic storytelling, and an engager of people. In these roles, Veikkaus is pursuing the function of sports media, while simultaneously being Finland’s only legal gambling provider. This societal dual role needs to be problematized, not least because it relies on the revenues of citizens’ gambling.
|Keywords: Gamblification, Sports News, Sports Betting, Social Media, Sports Journalism.
|Title: Taxation as a Policy Instrument For Social and Economic Effects of Gambling
|Author: Hamdi Furkan Günay
|Abstract: The personal and social benefits and harms of gambling, which has been more accessible, diversified, and widespread thanks to global internet use, sometimes find their place in country agendas. Due to its characteristics, the gambling sector requires effective management through public policies. In this direction, governments determine sectoral policies in two ways: by choosing to ban gambling activities completely or by regulating the sector by legalizing certain types. In this context, taxes stand out as one of the policy tools adopted by many countries. This research aimed to evaluate the success of taxes–as a public policy tool–in controlling the social and economic effects of the gambling industry. Through a systematic review, the role and success of taxation against the social and economic influences of gambling have been evaluated in light of literature research and application examples. The present study revealed that taxes, as a policy tool, are insufficient and may lead to undesirable results in combating gambling, which has limited-positive contributions to the country’s economies but harms society by creating severe addictions and other irreversible social costs.
|Keywords: Gambling, Gambling Tax, Tax Policy, Gambling Addiction, Public Revenue.
|File: Taxation- Gunay
|Title: Match-Fixing in Esports: A Scoping Review of Skin-Betting
|Authors: Alban Zohn & Paul Bleakley
|Abstract: Match-fixing threatens the integrity of sport, violating the unpredictability of outcome from which sport derives its special value. This threat harms the economic product of sport as well, posing a threat to the sustainability of the sport leagues around the world. Discovering match-fixing in esports involves different challenges compared to traditional sports, such as the anonymity inherent to “skin-betting”. This scoping review identifies a gap in the literature related to match-fixing in esports through skin-betting, and it moves the conversation towards a recognition of potential criminal exploitation of esports. The presented evaluation of esports match-fixing occurs under the lens of routine activities theory and drift theory. These theories suggest that the risk of criminal exploitation in esports is embedded in the anonymity skin-betting provides in virtual spaces for potential offenders. Esports thus faces a different risk of matchfixing compared to traditional sports that the esports industry is unprepared to address. Potential solutions are presented to complete the discussion and establish a foundation for future academic discourse of the topic at hand.
|Keywords: Esports, Match-Fixing, Skins, Skin-betting, Anonymity, Cryptocurrency
|File: Zohn & Bleakley