Title: Masthead
File: Masthead_V5I3
Title:  Estrés Postraumático y COVID-19 en América Latina: Un llamado a la Acción/Posttraumatic Stress and COVID-19 in Latin American: A Call to Action
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the mental wellbeing of the entire globe. However, Latin American countries’ systemic and environmental challenges hindered the ability of many nations in the region to serve the mental health needs of its habitants. Compared to other mental health symptoms, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms (PTSS) were particularly higher among this geographical region. Nonetheless, there is scarcity of research identifying the unique symptom profile of PTSS. Given that the typology of PTSS is multidimensional and appears to be contingent on the type of stressor, this study (as part of larger international study) aimed to identify differences in PTSS cluster
frequency across three Latin American countries. Participants from Ecuador (n= 254), Chile (n= 131), and Mexico (n=54), were included in the final 3X4 MANOVA analysis. Post-Hoc testing revealed significant differences identifying Chilean participants having higher mean scores across all four clusters of PTSS compared to Mexico and Ecuador. The findings of this study call for culturally
sensitive and empirically supported evidence to provide PTSS interventions based on unique symptom profile. Research implications and limitations are discussed.
Pages: 1-16
Keywords: Pandemic, Trauma, Health Disparities, Multicultural.
Authors: Alfonso Mercado Andy Torres, Amanda Palomin, Frances Morales, Cecilia- Colunga Rodriguez, Mario Angel Gonzalez, Luis Sarabia, Gabriel Davalos- Picazo, Diemen Delgado Garcia, Daniel Duclos, Julio Cesar Vazquez Colunga, Claudia Liliana Vazquez Juarez, & Maria del Pilar Egea Romero
File:  Mercado et al.Download
Title:  Violencia Reproductiva Hacia Las Mujeres Intra-Filas En El Conflicto Armado En Colombia: Recomendaciones Para La Reparación Al Proyecto De Vida/Reproductive Violence Against Women within Ranks in the Armed Conflict in Colombia: Recommendations for the Repair of Life Projects
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: Colombia has endured an internal armed conflict for over seven decades, involving various actors such as guerrillas, other illegal armed groups, and the State. Amidst this conflict, heinous acts were committed against opponents, the civilian population, and even within the groups themselves. One notably grave but often overlooked aspect is the systematic violence against women, affecting both members and nonmembers of these groups, manifesting in diverse ways. The objective of this
qualitative study is to explore the psychosocial impacts of reproductive violence on women in guerrilla armies and its repercussions on their life projects. The ultimate goal is to formulate a comprehensive proposal for their reparative processes.
Pages: 17-34
Keywords: Reproductive Violence, Women, Conflict, Gender Based Violence.
Authors: Adriana Bautista, Laura Catalina Cardozo, Nikol Luna, & Juliana Gutiérrez
File: Bautista et al.
Title:  Enfoque de curso de vida en el Cuidado de enfermería a sujetos con abuso de sustancias psicoactivas/ Life course approach in nursing care for subjects with psychoactive substance abuse
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: Background: In 2019, the lifetime prevalence of illicit substance use in Colombia for people aged 12 to 65 was 9.7%, with those between 18 and 24 years of age reporting the highest consumption. By the year 2030, there will be an estimated 11% increase in people who consume
drugs based solely on demographic data. Goal: To examine the experience of Nursing practice in mental health and psychiatry from the life course approach with subjects undergoing rehabilitation for psychoactive substance abuse during the 2021 and 2022 academic years. Methods: Qualitative methodology was used with 33 men with an average age of 24 undergoing rehabilitation for psychoactive substance abuse. Data collection techniques included semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation, care plans, and psychoeducational workshops. Results: The early consumption trajectory was associated with psychosocial determinants, including insecure, ambivalent or disorganized attachment ties, dysfunctional parenting styles, family history of mental disorders, initiation of consumption at an early age, unresolved mourning, low self-esteem, inadequate management of emotions, poor social skills, conflicting school and family environments and consumption, micro-trafficking, lack of social opportunities, and violent neighborhood environments. In terms of nursing care, there were four central lines of work: establish a positive
therapeutic educational relationship for the validation and containment of deregulated emotions, promote life skills, strengthen psychosocial resilience, and aid in the development of life skills to support their life plan. Conclusions: Educational and psychotherapeutic nursing care should focus
on substance abuse as an externalizing behavior that is a consequence of social vulnerability and low psychological resilience, in addition to promoting personal, community and social resources focused on the person, not on the drugs.
Pages: 35-49
Keywords: Reproductive Violence, Women, Conflict, Gender Based Violence.
Authors: Nelly Esther Cáliz, Juan Manuel Ramírez, Dayan Lizeth Conde
File: Caliz et al.
Title:  Enfoque de género en la política pública para el tratamiento de Trastorno por Uso de Sustancias
(Tus)/Gender approach in the public policy for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder (Tud)
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: in 2019, when a woman accesses services for the treatment of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), she often arrives in precarious conditions: acute malnutrition, syphilis, Hepatitis Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus or derived from centers of high complexity, as a complication of viral and infectious conditions or because they are victims of violence. This work aims to provide an explanatory framework about the stigma and discrimination associated with treatment for SUDs for women; to carry out a systematic review of the gender approach in treatment for Sud and to develop a concept based on reflection on the stigma, discrimination and inequity to which a woman who consumes Pas is
subjected: “institutional misogyny”. Search in databases, obtaining 190 articles published in indexed journals, 26 of them related to the object of analysis. 5 are used as evidence references. Data from a semi-structured interview are also taken from people who work in 5 institutions that provide mental health services. The results show that social and institutional exclusion leads women to look for risky
spaces such as the exercise of prostitution, the exchange of sex for drugs, trafficking in persons or criminal behavior to survive.
Pages: 50-66
Keywords: Public Policy, Gender Perspectives, Psychoactive Substances (Pas).
Authors: David Grisales & Jorge Hernán Jaramillo
File: Grisales & Jaramillo
Title: Diez años de implementación del sistema preventivo Comunidades Que se Cuidan en Colombia/ Ten years of implementation of the preventive system Communities That Care in Colombia
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: Comunidades Que se Cuidan is a preventive system adapted in Colombia by the Nuevos Rumbos Corporation since 2011, in 13 municipalities in the country, and whose survey has been administered in more than 40 municipalities to nearly 100,000 students. This paper collects the experience of 10 years of implementation in Colombia, adjustments to the original system
(Communities That Care), and the results of the survey implementation in 15 municipalities in the department of Cundinamarca. The main adjustments were related to the use of the community availability instrument, the division into work groups, the moment of application of the survey, and the use of a menu of preventive programs based on evidence or, at least, on data. Regarding the
prevalence of drug use in the 15 municipalities and their priority risk and protection factors, data collected between 2016 and 2018 constitute an important input to compare current prevalence and monitor their evolution.
Pages: 67-83
Keywords: Communities That Care, Protective factors, Risk factors, Prevention, Drug Abuse
Authors: Juliana Mejía-Trujillo & Augusto Pérez-Gómez
File: Trujillo et al.
Title: Miedo al COVID-19 y salud mental positiva en jóvenes mexicanos/ Fear of COVID-19 and positive mental health in young Mexicans
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: The pandemic caused emotional and psychological problems in the population; among them it has been reported that they had high levels of fear of contagion. Fear can affect people’s positive mental health, however, during lockdown, not everyone experienced the same degree of fear, nor did they react in the same way. It has been reported that women had higher levels of fear of COVID19 than men. The objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and positive mental health, as well as the differences according to sex. The sample was made up of 1,042 young Mexican university students between the ages of 18 and 24 (M = 20.5 SD = 1.9). 78.4% are women (817). The Positive Mental Health Scale (Keyes, 2009) and the COVID-19 Fear Scale (Kwasi
et al., 2020) were applied. The results show high levels of positive mental health, the majority of the sample obtained mild fear of COVID-19. No significant relationship was found between fear of COVID-19 and positive mental health. Women scored significantly higher on fear of COVID-19 than men. The findings of this research may be due to the fact that the sample was made up of young people, who mostly presented low levels of fear of COVID-19 and also the majority lived with their family, which could have had a positive effect. Likewise, it is possible that social stereotypes influence women to obtain higher levels of fear.
Pages: 84-97
Keywords: Pandemic, Fear of COVID-19, Positive Mental Health, University Students
Authors: Lorena Toribio & Patricia Andrade
File: Toribio & Andrade
Title: Uso de cigarrillos electrónicos y vapeadores en adolescentes de Bogotá, Colombia Ponencia en el Evento Internacional de Salud Mental/ Use of electronic cigarettes and vapers in adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: Background: Nationally representative studies in Colombia have shown a staggering percentage of adolescents and young people use electronic cigarettes and vapers (CEV). Objective: To comprehend the supply and sales mechanisms of electronic vaping (CEV) devices in Colombia, and the correlation between CEV usage and that of traditional cigarettes. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study, based on a survey data from two schools in Bogotá. All students in grades 6 to 11 with caregiver consent were eligible for participation. A total of 1,707 students completed the survey, with over half (51.6%) identifying as male. Age of the participants ranged from 10 to 19 years.
Results: Overall, this sample reported a higher prevalence of CEV use than in national studies (the last one was published two years ago), and there was a high percentage of concurrent users of conventional and CEV cigarettes. Conclusion: This study is among the first in Colombia to explore the use of CEV in adolescents, providing valuable information for the formulation of prevention policies and programs.
Pages: 98-108
Keywords: Electronic Cigarette, Vape, Adolescent, Colombia.
Authors: Orlando Scoppetta & Alejandra Villamil
File: Scoppetta & Villamil
Title: Enfermedad, enfermedad mental y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas/Illness, mental illness and psychoactive substance use
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: This article discusses the concept of “mental disorder” in the context of the medical concepts of illness and disorder. Specifically, it shows some of the inadequacies of the concept of mental disorder that is used in the different versions of DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) and
ICD (International Classifications of Diseases). It is proposed that the human problems, used referred as mental disorders, are basically, life problems that involve moral and social considerations. These problems generate different types of suffering, but there are no logical reasons to consider these sufferings as pathological. Finally, the previous discussion is applied to the use and abuse of psychoactive substances (PAS) and it concludes that the use of PAS has been valued negatively and positively in different social and cultural contexts and therefore it is not something pathological. Doubtless, the use (and abuse) of these substances has a variety of biological and behavioral effects on the individual that may alter his/her interpersonal relations and his/her academic or labor life. To use
PAS is a risky behavior that could lead to several life problems and these problems must be prevented and addressed through different programs.
Pages: 109-121
Keywords: mental illness, mental disorders, psychoactive substance use
Authors: Telmo Eduardo Peña
File: Pena
Title: Conclusiones: el futuro de la investigación sobre salud mental y adicciones en América Latina/ Conclusion: The Future of Research on Mental Health and Addictions in Latin America.
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Abstract: N/A
Pages: 122-128
Keywords: Mental Health, Addictions, Latin America
Authors: Augusto Pérez-Gómez & Alejandra Villamil-Sánchez
File: Pérez-Gómez & Alejandra Villamil-Sánchez