Title: Table of Contents
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
File: TOC_JCD_V2I3_2020
Title: EDITORIAL: Grief in the Wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring New Approaches from Diverse Perspectives
Volume:  2
Issue: 3
Pages: 2-6
Authors: Soheila Pashang
File: Editorial_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/QLRS1758
Title: The Scream of Silence
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Pages: 7-10
Authors: Mahmood Nafisi
File: SP07_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/BLWS2282
Title: The Association Between Social Skills, Grief and Resilience among Palestinian University Students Throughout the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic in Palestine
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that social skills and resilience could be predictive factors in coping with traumatic grief among youth throughout the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the current study variables have not been examined among Palestinian university students. This correlational study was the first to test the relationship between social skills, resilience and grief among Palestinian university students throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 412 university students; 264 females and 148 males, recruited from online advertisements, e-mail campaigns and social media. Findings revealed that social skills were negatively correlated with grief, and positively correlated with resilience; while resilience correlated negatively with traumatic grief. Further studies are recommended to test the relationship between current study variables and other related variables such as wellbeing, social support and psychological adjustment. This study also emphasizes the importance of developing intervention programs that focus on reinforcing social skills which may improve psychological resilience among university students during pandemics.
Pages: 8-23
Keywords: Social skills; Grief; Resilience, COVID-19; Palestine
Authors: Fayez Mahamid & Dana Bdier
File: SP02_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/CBKW3627
Title: Staff Respite Units for Healthcare Providers during COVID-19
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges for the community at large, and especially for healthcare providers (HCP). They faced new and unprecedented stressors, which affected both their work and home lives. The pandemic has been pervasive and requires a strong and sustainable workforce who risked possible personal infection, feared infecting loved ones felt overwhelmed by dying patients, and endured long working hours. Staff Respite Units were created to offer HCP the opportunity to find a serene place within their busy, stressful clinical settings, and to support them in various ways – hydrate, think, meditate, laugh, connect, and show them that they were supported and valued. The Staff Respite Units were based on addressing Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Six Staff Respite Units were deployed in a major tertiary healthcare center in Ontario Canada, comprised of two general hospitals, a cancer care hospital and rehabilitation institutes. The need for the centers was evident as shown through staff attendance: > 100 visits per day at larger sites, >3000 visits per week, and >17,500 per month, and positive feedback from staff. Specific strategies and resources were found to be effective in providing support for the overwhelmed mind, tired body, and grieving HCPs. Our experience with Staff Respite Units from the use of the Incident Management System (IMS), the education of Staff Respite Unit staff, selection of supportive activities and HCP feedback can be used as a framework for other healthcare systems or industries during critical times.
Pages: 24-39
Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic, Health Care Providers, Staff Wellbeing, Best Practice, Staff Respite Units, Grief
Authors: Heather Gordon, Rima Styra, & Natasha Bloomberg
File: SP01_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/MRLB7496
Title: It Is Not Just A Pandemic: How The COVID-19 Mega-Crisis Affects Grief
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated all aspects of society. Globally, the coronavirus disease has infected and killed millions of people, resulting in a lockdown that disrupted all major financial markets and economies, healthcare systems, and most social opportunities. As attention and resources have been allocated to address these immediate challenges, little is discussed about their impacts on grief, suicide, and mental health. While recent studies show correlations between financial loss and overall psychosocial well-being as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been little exploration into how these factors drive and impact other interconnected crises. Grounded on system thinking, this paper examines the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 on marginalized individuals, many of whom have been disproportionately affected by additional and often compounding economic, social, political, and health challenges since the onset of COVID-19. To untangle the complexities and interactions between and across these challenges, it is argued that impacts of COVID-19 far exceed the boundaries of taxonomy used in prior events such as the 2008 financial crisis, or the 2003 SARS epidemic. Therefore, the term mega-crisis is used to classify COVID-19 as a system that consists of numerous crises; with each part deeply interconnected to one another, consisting of unique drivers, responses, and impacts.
Pages: 40-54
Keywords: COVID-19, Grief, Suicide, Mega-Crisis, Systems Thinking, Recession, Mental Health
Authors: Sep Pashang
File: SP05_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/CFSJ6336
Title: A Reflection on Racial Injustice and (Black) Anticipatory Grief Compounded by COVID-19
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract:  This reflection is a deeply intimate and personal expression about living through an unprecedented moment in time. The impact of a global health crisis amidst an ongoing search for racial justice has made this writing one of the most profound experiences that I have ever encountered. It is within this work that I found a silent strength to carry on my work for a better, more just tomorrow – a world where Black, Indigenous and all racialized people experience true emancipation in all aspects of their lives.
Pages: 55-71
Keywords: Anticipatory Grief, COVID-19, Black Lives Matter, Racism, Dementia
Authors: Rai Reece
File: SP04_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/WBDG9616
Title: Unmasking Dimensions of Grief During COVID-19: The Long-Term Care Crisis
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: COVID-19 is a serious, viral infectious disease. With its global spread on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a state of global emergency. COVID-19 continues to rapidly sweep across Canada, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths as of October 2020 (Lao & Jackson, 2020). Over 80% of deaths have occurred among older adults in Long-Term Care (LTC) facilities (Canadian Institute for Health Information, June 2020). LTC is described as a range of preventive care and support offered by not-for-profit and for-profit providers within facilities, that address the needs of older adults. Older adults in LTC facilities often have complex health conditions and multiple comorbidities, resulting in a group at high risk of contracting the virus. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s introduction of physical distancing regulations, in an effort to mitigate the spread of the virus, has unfortunately proven ineffective at lowering the mortality rate of older adults within LTC. This article reveals the ways in which COVID-19 has increased the risks for older adults in LTC, by examining the impact of inadequate staffing and medical supplies within some for-profit LTC facilities. The article will further explore the impact of the unfortunate loss of life and grieving processes among affected family members and broader communities.
Pages: 72-86
Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic, Older Adults, Long Term Care, Collective Grief, Social
Authors: Salma Jaffer
File: SP08_Final
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/IEVN6478
Title: Reflective Practice: Woodingford Lodge Long-Term Care Home
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented many concerns to society in general, and the population of Long-Term Care in specific. Here at Woodingford Lodge, a non-profit municipal long-term home, we devoted all efforts as has every other Long-Term Care home in Ontario to ensure the safety and security of our residents, staff and visitors. This paper is a reflective practice on the impact of COVID-19 at Woodingford Lodge long-term home (LTC) at the three levels; Individual (residents), Social (family and friends), and the broader Community. Located in the County of Oxford, WoodingFord Lodge works in close partnership with Southwestern Public Health and other stakeholders to ensure compassionate and resident-centered care is provided to residents throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.
Pages: 87-95
Keywords: COVID-19, Long-Term Care, Woodingford Lodge, Residents’ Needs, Best Practices, Family Transition Program
Authors: Mark Dager
File: SP10_Final
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/CTQX6127
Title: Mourning the loss of subjective temporal continuity: A personal reflection
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: Covid led to a disruption of subjective time experience – an abyss which separates Covid and pre-Covid time. Temporal memory has become unreliable, putting into question which other memories can no longer be trusted.
Pages: 96-98
Keywords: Grief, Covid-19, Loss
Authors: Margrit Eichler
File: SP03_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/POKB2216
Title: Communication, Grief and Life Style Under Covid-19 within the Iranian Context
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: Given the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) disease and its global impact on all dimensions of life, the present paper investigates two important dimensions, namely “lifestyle” and “culture”, in order to explore discourses of grief. The importance of empathy, and the different roles and applications of cyberspace, social media, and social networks during the quarantine period, specifically within the Iranian context, will be discussed. COVID-19 has challenged the appropriateness and application of existing theories within the humanities and social sciences. One important theory is Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943), specifically, the highest needs of self-actualization (Lester, 2013). Self-actualization is materialized when meeting psychological, safety and security, social, and self-esteem needs. COVID-19 has interrupted these hierarchy of needs, leaving people worldwide struggling for their survival, and recovering from a sense of safety and security. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has subjected people’s lifestyle and culture to change; from methods of coping with grief and loss, alongside other consumerist choices, preferences, and behaviors. Developments in computer and information technologies over the last few decades have shed light to the role of social media and social networks as an alternative for interpersonal relationships. During COVID-19, this role continues to evolve as an important substitute for maintaining social connections.
Pages: 99-109
Keywords: COVID-19; Lifestyle; Culture; Grief; Empathy, Social Media, Social Networks
Authors: Nastaran Khajehnoori
File: SP06_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/XASA3101
Title: Demystifying Discourses of Death, Burial and Grief in Light of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Abstract: On January 8th, 2020, with the downing of Ukraine International Airlines flight PS752 in the outskirts of Tehran, Iran’s capital city, Canadians mourned alongside surviving families – a pain that was not theirs – while facing the complexities of death, repatriation, and bereavement among its diverse populations. Paradoxically, this understanding soon became a lived reality for some Canadians in the wake of the country’s state of emergency as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. With the sudden cancellation of most international flights, some travelling Canadians succumbed to the virus abroad, leaving family members with the challenge of repatriating the deceased’s remains. In addition, the imposition of social distancing regulations interrupted spiritual, cultural and religious funerals and memorial services for family members of over12,000 Canadians who had lost their lives in the country to the virus. Bereaved family members were left with no option but to either delay burial, or mourn in isolation (Goodkind, 2020; Mercer, 2020). In times of adversary, our resilience and collective agency helped us practice new methods of grieving. At the present time, funerals have relied on virtual tools to provide a forum for collective mourning (Ahsan, 2020). Individuals have also relied on social media to share their pains and commemorate their loved ones. Professional bereavement services continue to explore virtual services.
Pages: 110-119
Keywords: Grief, Covid-19, Death, Repatriation, Resilience
Authors: Soheila Pashang & Masood Zangeneh
File: SP09_FINAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54127/TTOX4603